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Product Name: Icariin
The Alias: Epimedium extract
Molecular Weight: 676.65
Plant sources:Epimedium brevicornum Maxim ,Epimedium sagittatum Maxim,Epimedium pubescens Maxim,Epimedium wushanense T.S.Ying,Epimedium koreanum Nakai etc Drying stems extract.
Physical and chemical properties: Light yellow needle crystalline powder, soluble in ethanol, ethyl acetate, insoluble in water, and insoluble in ether, benzene, chloroform. Reaction with ferric chloride green, hydrochloric magnesium powder reaction was orange and red.
Functions and Indications: Icariin increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular blood flow, promote hematopoietic function, immune function, and bone metabolism, kidney impotence, anti-aging, anti-tumor efficacy.
What is icariin ?Icariin identify Epimedium grass plant extracts.Modern pharmacological studies have shown, to Epimedium active ingredient and its extract has a wide range of physiological activity, and found many new pharmacological effects and new uses, this article Epimedium pharmacological research in recent years are summarized as follows:
1.Pharmacological effects related to the functions and indications
1.1 enhanced gonadal function
The Epimedium fluidextract androgen-like effects, can promote the secretion of canine semen. Male mice fed Epimedium decoction elevated plasma testosterone (Ts) content, increasing the weight of the testes and levator ani muscles. Injection Epimedium extract 20-40rag, sex hormone activity 7.5g testosterone quite ... Application 125I radioimmunoassay determination of different concentrations of icariin on the the PDE5 enzyme substrate CGMP rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue Icariin can improve intracavernous CGMP concentration in a concentration-dependent manner, and show that prostitution sheep hopane glycosides on the erectile mechanism and its cavernosum smooth muscle CGMP concentration can improve and enhance the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle relaxation effects.
1.2 adjustment immune function
Epimedium can enhance the body's non-specific immune function and cellular immune function, regulate humoral immune function, the active ingredient is icariin epimedium polysaccharide. Epimedium polysaccharide and epimedium the total flavonoids may significantly increase the rate and phagocytic index of macrophage phagocytosis of chicken erythrocytes, can significantly antagonized cyclophosphamide in mice monocyte-macrophage phagocytosis by ... 3. Macrophages secrete interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has a two-way adjustment.
1.3 promote bone growth
Epimedium , a good role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. icariin containing epimedium compound preparation, osteoporosis caused by long-term glucocorticoid antagonism. Obtained by enzyme digestion and in vitro mechanical separation method for the observation of Epimedium Flavonoids osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively newborn sD rat osteoblasts, osteoclasts, different concentrations were added to the culture medium Epimedium Flavonoids observed osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and mineralization functions observed number of osteoclasts, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, morphology, Image Pro plus image software analysis resorption pits on bone slices the number and area. The results show that Epimedium Flavonoids can affects osteoblasts proliferation, differentiation and mineralization promote bone formation and reduce the number of osteoclasts in vitro, the diminished osteoclast absorption function.
Experimental studies have shown that the D-galactose induced subacute aging model mouse T and B lymphocyte proliferation response function decreases, icariin Epimedium Flavonoids gavage can be a significant recovery, and significantly improve the aging mouse spleen SOD activity, reduceheart, liver tissue lipid peroxidation and lipofuscin formation. Epimedium polysaccharide and total flavonoids compounds can improve the aging male rat hypothalamic monoamine neurotransmitter levels, inhibit the aging mouse brain cholinesterase activity, increased brain neurotransmitter acetylcholine content, improve aging big learning and memory abilities of rats and aged mice, suggesting that Epimedium Flavonoids can significantly enhance the regulatory function of the neuroendocrine network, the maintenance of homeostasis, thereby delaying aging.
1.5 Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular system
icariin Epimedium Flavonoids inhibit the atrial muscle strength and frequency, and isoproterenol dose-response curve of the atrial muscle positive frequency shifted to the right in a parallel manner, but not calcium antagonism and M receptor agonist effects. That Epimedium Flavonoids selectively block myocardial the pl receptor, while no blocking effect [d receptor trachea receptor and vascular smooth muscle. Epimedium decoction, alcohol leaching perfusion isolated toad heart or Epimedium decoction injected the reign of the heart, can significantly increase myocardial contractility, and pentobarbital sodium due to heart failure in animals restore myocardial contractile force. The of Epimedium decoction ethanol leaching liquid to the intravenous injection of rabbits, rats, cats, showing antihypertensive effect, intraperitoneal injection Icarrin suppressed the rise in blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats, reduce the mortality of which wind. Epimedium antihypertensive effect primarily peripheral expansion, reducing peripheral resistance induced by 8. icariin toxic lanatoside K and adrenaline guinea pigs induced arrhythmias, although not completely confrontation, but can significantly shorten its duration. Mice pre-injection preparations, ventricular premature beats and ventricular tachycardia can be significantly reduced. Of Epimedium decoction and alcohol lixivium hearts were perfused isolated animals (rabbits, guinea pigs), can significantly increase coronary blood flow. Static injections also significantly increased coronary flow in anesthetized dogs.
2.Other pharmacological effects
2.1 antibacterial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory effects
Vitro tests, Epimedium strong inhibitory effect on white aureus and Staphylococcus aureus. E-CHO virus and Coxsackie virus was inhibited by poliomyelitis virus culture in the organization. icariin Epimedium subcutaneous injection of methanol extract significantly inhibited rat egg white paw swelling, rabbits orally can reduce the histamine-induced capillary permeability increase.
2.2 hypoglycemic effect
The experiments show that Epimedium boil water, reduce B lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Experimental hyperglycemic rats orally epimedium extract significant hypoglycemic effect.
2.3 against tumor effect
Epimedium Flavonoids can significantly improve the phagocytic function of macrophages in tumor-bearing mice and T lymphocyte transformation rate, suggesting that promotes macrophage nonspecific killing tumor cells and the specificity and T lymphocytes cytotoxicitytumor-bearing mice with low cellular immune function recovery, at the same time to increase the ratio of spleen body, significantly increase the red blood cell C3b receptor rosette and reduce red cell immune complex rosette rate. Prompted Epimedium Flavonoids can increase cellular immune function and erythrocyte immune function of tumor-bearing mice, can inhibit the growth of tumor cells in a certain extent.
3. Summary and Outlook
icariin kidney yang, functions and indications of strong bones and muscles pharmacological effects to enhance gonadal function, modulation of immune function, promote bone growth, aging and other role. Epimedium also has a strong heart, lower blood pressure, anti-arrhythmic, increase cerebral blood flow, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, blood fat, anti-tumor, such as a variety of roles, has high medicinal and health value. However, the research and development at an early stage, the active ingredient of Epimedium is still not deep enough, and the microscopic mechanism of action of the pharmacological effects observed in the macro needs further study. Therefore, to take advantage of our country's the icariin resources advantages, the use of traditional medicine experience combined with modern science and technology, in-depth study of its active ingredients, preparation process, pharmacological effects and clinical applications, icariin may become with good development prospects to enhance immune function and immune regulation, anti-osteoporosis drugs to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and has broad application prospects.